Heart disease remains the number one cause of death in the US for both men and women. Heart disease, in all its forms, is responsible for over 400,000 deaths a year among women – more than all forms of cancer combined. And although new research on the importance of heart-healthy diets, exercise and quitting smoking have decreased heart disease rates among men in the past 30 years, the rate for women hasn’t budged, according to a new report from the National Institute of Nursing.
Here, we will address the most important questions and issues to help women become more heart smart.
Q: What exactly is “heart” or “cardiovascular disease?”
Heart or cardiovascular disease is a blanket term that actually covers different diseases of the heart and vascular systems of the body. The types of heart disease are:
- Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common form of heart disease. CAD is caused when the coronary arteries that supply the heart with oxygen and nutrients become narrowed or clogged. This can cause chest pain (angina), heart attack (myocardial infarction) and even sudden death.
- Congestive heart failure occurs when the heart muscle is weakened and is longer able to pump blood effectively. The most common symptoms include shortness of breath, fatigue or swelling of the legs. Congestive heart failure is often the result of damage to the heart muscle caused by a heart attack.
- Cardiac arrhythmia, or abnormal heart beat, can be health-threatening if it keeps the heart from pumping efficiently. If this is the case, then an arrhythmia can contribute to congestive heart failure or even cause sudden cardiac death.
- Stroke is caused when blood vessels bringing blood to the brain become narrowed or clogged.
- Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is very similar but occurs in the arteries of the legs.
- Valvular disease referes to damaged or malfunctioning valves of the heart, and an aneurysm, is the abnormal widening, or bulging of an artery due to a weakened arterial wall from severely clogged and hardened arteries.
Coronary arteries bring blood and oxygen to the heart. If blood flow to part of the heart is blocked long enough and the heart is starved of oxygen, heart cells dies and that part of the heart muscle is damaged or dies, resulting in a heart attack – more formally known as myocardial infarction.
Q. How prevalent is heart disease in women in the US?
According to the American Heart Association, more than one in three female adults has some form of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Beginning in 1984, the number of CVD deaths for females began to exceeded those for males. Research shows that women who have heart attacks are more likely to die within a year of the event compared to men, and a whopping 64 percent of women who died of sudden cardiac events had no previous symptoms.
Q. What are the symptoms of a heart attack?
Recognizing the symptoms of heart attack in women may not always be as clear-cut as it is for men. The most prominent symptoms which are sure signs of trouble that women should keep an eye out for are:
- Pressure, tightness, fullness and discomfort in the center of the chest that lasts more than a few minutes, or it comes and goes in waves
- Pain or pressure that spreads to the shoulders, between the shoulder blades, neck, upper back, jaw, or arms
- Jaw or throat pain
- Crushing chest pain
- Shortness of breath and difficulty breathing
- Nausea and/or dizziness
- Cold sweat, paleness
- Overwhelming fatigue or weakness
- Abdominal pain
Q. What should you do if you think you’re having a heart attack?
Is it heart burn? A pulled muscle? Fatigue? Just what is that pain and what does it mean? It’s important for women to be aware of the signs and symptoms of a heart attack, but even more important – don’t wait for the pain to pass. Seek help. Unfortunately though, woman can experience the full gamut of symptoms or only one or two. The only way to know for sure if you’ve had a heart attack is to be examined by a physician and undergo testing, such as an electrocardiogram (ECG).
If you think you’re having heart attack seek help immediately and call 911. Don’t take a chance and try driving yourself to a hospital since you run the risk of losing consciousness. Tell the 911 operator and tell the paramedics that you are experiencing heart attack symptoms. Don’t be afraid to be firm. A 2009 Penn Medicine study showed that there definite gender disparities in pre-hospital care and that women with chest pain are less likely than men to receive proper treatment from paramedics. Once at the hospital, make sure you get an ECG and/or blood enzyme test to see if you are having a heart attack.
The Penn Heart Rescue Program at Penn Presbyterian Medical Center has has provided emergency cardiac care to more than 1,200 patients. When compared to benchmarks, the Penn Heart Rescue program shows a significant reduction in mortality rates.